A range of outcomes may be produced or improved by neighbourhood improvements, including greater overall levels of satisfaction and higher resident ratings of the quality of neighbourhoods. This includes the built and natural environment and local amenities and facilities. People may also derive a number of psychosocial benefits from their neighbourhood, pertaining to control/privacy and status/reputation.
Key findings to date relating to this outcome are summarised below.
Outmovers and neighbourhood satisfaction
When compared with people who remained living in Regeneration Areas, those people who were Outmovers from Regeneration Areas over the period 2006-2009 made relative gains in terms of perceived neighbourhood quality and levels of neighbourhood satisfaction. Neighbourhood satisfaction for Outmovers declined the further they moved from their original location.
Source: Moving Out Moving On? Chapter 5
Neighbourhood reputation and the media
An analysis of media coverage of our two Regeneration Areas, Red Road and Sighthill, showed how such reputations can be maintained through the media. Over a thirteen and a half year period (1998-2011) negative coverage dominated, with half (49%) of the coverage of Sighthill, and 41% of the coverage of Red Road being negative. The negative stories tended to focus on violence and crime; the poor environment on the estates; asylum seekers and refugees; and high-rise living.
Residents' perceptions of their neighbourhood's reputation
Residents' perceptions of the external reputations of their areas worsened over the period 2006-2008. By 2008, in all types of study area apart from Housing Improvement Areas, the majority of respondents thought their area had a bad reputation among the people of Glasgow, and more so in the Peripheral Estates than anywhere else.
Source: Progress for People and Places, page 110
Deprivation and the distribution of amenities
A review of the research evidence on the distribution of amenities and retail premises by level of deprivation revealed that, in the Glasgow case, neither alcohol outlet nor fast-food outlet densities were patterned by levels of deprivation. However, there was a high density of off-sale alcohol premises in deprived, east-end areas of the city.
Source: Briefing Paper 10
Amenities, youth and leisure services
In four of our five study area types, youth and leisure services were the lowest rated local amenity in 2008. Several amenities received their lowest resident ratings in the Transformational Regeneration Areas, though shops were rated lowest in the Peripheral Estates.
Source: Progress for People and Places, Table 6.2
Maintenance of the neighbourhood environment
An evaluation of the joint GHA/Glasgow Local Regeneration Agency Network programme for Environmental Employability (cf. Community Janitors) showed that a responsive environmental maintenance service was highly valued by residents and LHO staff. As well as improving the local environment, such a service also improved LHO-tenant relations and LHO staff morale. However, awareness of the service among residents was found to be low.
Parks and play areas
Residents' ratings of parks and open spaces, and of children's play areas, improved over the period 2006-2008 in all types of study area. An evaluation of the Glasgow Housing Association (GHA)/Glasgow City Council (GCC) Joint Play Area Improvement Programme further indicated that across six cited studies, both residents and local housing organisation (LHO) staff considered that the improved play areas had enhanced children's activity levels and provided a greater opportunity for adults (parents and grandparents) to mix.
Perceptions of antisocial behaviour
Perceptions of antisocial behaviour problems in the local neighbourhood worsened in all types of study area over the period 2006-2008. What is more, perceptions of antisocial behaviour were worse in all types of study area (apart from Housing Improvement Areas), when compared with residents' views in the most deprived areas across Scotland.
Feelings of being safe walking after dark declined in all types of study area over the period 2006-2008, and in Regeneration Areas in 2008 only a minority of respondents felt safe after dark. A comparison with the evaluation of the New Deal for Communities Programme in England suggests that feelings of safety should improve as regeneration progresses further.
In 2006, residents' ratings of the attractiveness of their neighbourhoods were far lower in Regeneration Areas than elsewhere, and by 2008 they had declined even further as redevelopment processes got underway with clearance and demolition.
Source: The Regeneration Challenge in Transformation Areas, Table 19 and Progress for People and Places, Table 6.1